Sedating chemical chloroform
The veins of the leaves are either greenish-white or red — the former is reputed to be more potent. The average weight of a fresh and a dried leaf is about 1.7 and 0.43 g respectively. At high dosages, however, it can have sedative-narcotic effects. (2009), ‘General approach to the total synthesis of 9-methoxy-substituted indole alkaloids: synthesis of mitragynine, as well as 9-methoxygeissoschizol and 9-methoxy-Nb-methylgeissoschizol’, Journal of Organic Chemistry, Volume 74, pp. It is also used in traditional medicine and as an opium substitute. The phytochemicals isolated from various parts of the tree include over 40 structurally related alkaloids as well as several flavonoids, terpenoid saponins, polyphenols, and various glycosides. (2009), ‘Quantitative analysis of mitragynine in human urine by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry’, Journal of Chromatography B, Volume 877, pp. The main psychoactive components in the leaves are mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, both found only in Mitragyna speciosa.
Powdery, greenish or beige-brown kratom preparations fortified with extracts from other leaves are also available. Mitragynine is insoluble in water but soluble in conventional organic solvents, including acetone, acetic acid, alcohols, chloroform and diethyl ether providing fluorescent solutions. Mitragynine distils at 230–240 Molecular weight: 414.50 g/mol 7-Hydroxymitragynine is present only in very small amounts in kratom leaves and was identified in 1993. (2007), ‘Fos-like immunoreactivity in rat dorsal raphe nuclei induced by alkaloid extract of Mitragyna speciosa’, Neuroscience Letters, Volume 416, pp. The receptor agonist effect of kratom alkaloids is antagonised by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. In addition, 5-HT channels are also involved in the unique pharmacological and behavioural activity of mitragynine.
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(of the Rubiaceae family) is a 4 to 16 metre high tropical tree indigenous to South East Asia, the Philippines and New Guinea but now cultivated elsewhere. (2009), ‘The botanical origin of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa; Rubiaceae) available as abused drugs in the Japanase markets’, Journal of Natural Medicine, Volume 63, p.